A compendium of Monopodial Orchids of Meghalaya

· Articles
Authors

Sachin Sharma, S. K. Singh*, Ramesh Kumar & A.A. Mao

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong – 793003
sachinbsi2012@yahoo.co.in; rkpaliwalbsi@yahoo.com; aamao2008@gmail.com
*Corresponding author: S.K. Singh email: sksbsinc@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Sixty nine species of monopodial orchids belonging to 7 Subtribes namely Vandinae, Deceptorinae, Phalaenopsidinae, Gastrochilinae, Aeridinae, Pelatantheriinae, Taeniophllinae are enumerated. Up-to-date nomenclature, salient features, phenology and place of occurrence in Meghalaya of each species is provided in the present communication.

Keywords Monopodial, orchid, Meghalaya

Introduction

Monopodial orchids are the orchid species having stems with unlimited apical growth, on damage to apical bud axillary buds get activated and produce another stem which grows indefinitely. These belong to tribe Vandae in family orchidaceae, perhaps one of the youngest branches in the family and are still in a rapidly expanding evolutionary flux. No other group of orchids developed through anagenesis is so diverse that can be compared with monopodials (Garay, 1972). In India monopodial orchids are represented by nearly 216 species under 55 genera mainly distributed in Himalayan tracts incl. Northeastern Hills and Western Ghats. However, reports are also available from other parts of India as well. In current scenario, there have been considerable taxonomical, nomenclatural changes in many plant species including orchids. Following this, an updated database for names of previously reported species is required to be maintained. It is worthwhile to mention that the Monopodial orchids have potential in horticultural practices as they possess hardy stems and long lasting flowers which bloom for 15 – 30 days. Several species of Vanda and Phalaenopsis are commercially exploited at national and International level for producing hybrids of high economic and aesthetic values. At present state of our knowledge about 137 species occur in North-east India (Rao, 2009).

Recently, a list of monopodial orchids published for the state of Arunachal Pradesh by A.N. Rao (Rao, l.c.). As far as Meghalaya is concerned, there is no such intensive updated list is available, though there is mention of these species in various work incl. Kataki’s Orchids of Meghalaya (Kataki, 1986). Therefore, present work aiming to provide an updated list in light of present nomenclatural systems. The extensive and intensive scrutiny of herbarium (ASSAM) and published literature reveals the occurrence of 69 species under 33 genera of Monopodial orchids recorded from the state. We are following Szlachetko (1995) system of classification for tribe and subtribe, subfamily under family Orchidaceae. In present context, the distribution in Meghalaya of each species is based on herbarium and published literatures. A conspectus of subtribes, genera and species in Meghalaya.

At the subtribal level the subtribe Vandinae has maximum representation of 22 species (32%), followed by Gastrochilinae with 21 species (30%), Aeridinae with 13 species (19%), Phalaenopsidinae with 8 species (12%), Deceptorinae and Taeniophllinae are with 2 species each ( 3% each), Pelatantheriinae with 1 species (Figure 1). If we consider about generic diversity the subtribe Aeridinae have maximum number of genera while Pelatantheriinae and Taeniophllinae are represented by single genus each.

Taxonomic enumeration

Acampe ochracea (Lindl.) Hochr., Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910. Saccolabium ochraceum Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 28 (Misc.): 2. 1842.

A conspectus of subtribes, genera and species in Meghalaya

Tribe

Subtribe

Genus

No. of Species

Vandae Lindl.

Vandinae Rchb.f

Arachnis

1

Esmeralda

2

Luisia

6

Papilionanthe

3

Thrixspermum

4

Vanda

5

Vandopsis

1

Deceptorinae Szlac.

Cleisocentron

1

Schoenorchis

1

Phalaenopsidinae Szlac.

Ascocentrum

1

Biermannia

1

Chiloschista

1

Pennilabium

1

Phalaenopsis

3

Pteroceras

1

Gastrochilinae Szlac.

Acampe

3

Cleisostoma

9

Diploprora

1

Gastrochilus

5

Ornithochilus

1

Saccolabiopsis

1

Smitinandia

1

Aeridinae Pfitz.

Aerides

2

Micropera

4

Rhynchostylis

1

Robiquetia

1

Staurochilus

1

Stereochilus

1

Tuberolabium

1

Uncifera

2

Pelatantheriinae Szlac.

Pelatantheria

1

Taeniophllinae Szlac.

Taeniophyllum

2

Epiphyte with an erect to pendulous stem, flowers yellow with reddish brown transverse stripes, labellum white, 3 lobed with a cylindric spur.

Flowering: February.

Distribution: Dawki, Nongpoh, Garampani, Railong-Jowai, Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Garo hills 10 miles down to Dalu road, 19.02.1950, M.L. Saikia 36177; Garampani, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5131; Railong-Jowai, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5130; Nongpoh, 08.1966, S.K. Kataki 37143.

Acampe papillosa (Lindl.) Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 2. 1853. Saccolabium papillosum Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1552. 1833.

Epiphyte having stout erect to curved stem, flowers yellow with transverse brown stripes, labellum white with obscure side lobes having faded purple spots on epichile region.

Flowering: November – December.

Distribution: Burnihat, Nongpoh, Raliang-Jowai, Rongrenggiri-Garo hills, Gokha-Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Nongpoh, 27.10.1935, G.K.Deka, 20269; Rongrenggiri, 23.03.1947, M.M. Srinivasan 22222; Burnihat, 26.03.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 56559; Raliang-Jowai, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5130; Gokha-Garo hills, 17.04.1974, M.K.V. Rao 59291.

Acampe rigida (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) P.F. Hunt, Kew Bull. 24: 98. 1970. Aerides rigida Buch.-Ham. ex Sm., Cycl. 39: 12. 1818.

Epiphyte with a stout stem, often branched stem, flowers yellowish with transverse crimson stripes, labellum 3-lobed white with purple spots.

Flowering: February – March.

Distribution: Bhoilongpong, Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Umsaw-Nongpoh 10.04.1949, G.K. Deka 36169; Umsaw-Nongpoh, 25.09.1951, G.K. Deka 36170; Nongpoh, 06.11.1952, G.K. Deka 36171.

Aerides multiflora Roxb. Pl. Coromandel 3: 68. 1820.

Epiphyte, with stout leafy stem, flowers scented, white with densely placed pink spots, labellum triangular, entire, shortly clawed.

Flowering: May – June.

Distribution: Bholaganj, Burnihat, Dawki, Nongpoh, Umsning-Noomati, Pynursula, Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Pongtung-Pynursla, 22.08.1938, G.K. Deka 22464; Dawki, 06.06.1939, G.K. Deka 22461; Bholaganj, 9.12.1947, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 40754; Nongpoh, 24.05.1950, G.K. Deka 36083; Pongtung- Pynursla, 31.12.1950, M.L. Saikia Acc. No. 36114; Umshning-Noomati, 11.05.1965, J. Joseph 42312; Dawki, 01.06.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42605; Gokha-Garo hills, 17.04.1974, M.K.V. Rao 59292; Baghmara-Garo hills, 18.04.1974, M.K.V. Rao 59328.

Aerides odorata Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 525. 1790.

Epiphyte, stem stout, flowers fragrant, white with purple blotches at extremities, labellum trilobed.

Flowering: May – July.

Distribution: Burnihat, Dawki, Garo hills, Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Nongpoh, 08.1935, G.K. Deka 22463; Nongpoh, 20.05.1941, G.K. Deka 22462; Nongpoh, 24.05.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36126; Dawki, 03.06.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42677; Nongpoh, 21.06.1973, H.J. Basu 53030.

Arachnis labrosa (Lindl. & Paxton) Rchb.f. Bot. Centralbl. 28: 343. 1886. Arhynchium labrosum Lindl. & Paxton, Paxton’s Fl. Gard. 1: 142. 1851.

Epiphyte or lithophyte, stem stout, slightly woody,flowers fragrant, greenish yellow with maroonish-brownish tinge at margins of sepals and petals, labellum oblong, clawed.

Flowering: April – July (December).

Distribution: Markasa, Umsaw, Dawki.

Specimen examined: Dawki, 08.04.1949, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36071; Umsaw, 25.09.1951, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36070, 36072.

Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 975. 1913. Aerides ampullacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3: 476. 1832.

Epiphyte, miniature vandaceous plant, with short, simple, several leafed stem, flowers deep pink, labellum linear with obscure side lobes ending into spur.

Flowering: May – July.

Distribution: Jaintia hills, Mawsmai.

Specimen examined: Mawsmai, 16.05.1952, G.K. Deka, Acc. No. 36158.

Biermannia quinquecallosa King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 591. 1897.

Epiphyte, stem small, erect, sepals and petals white, labellum yellow, margins entire and involute.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Jowai.

Specimen examined: fide King & Pantling (1897).

Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb.f.) J.J.Sm., Orch. Java 553. 1905. Thrixspermum luniferum Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1868: 786. 1868.

Epiphyte, stem very small, usually leafless, sepals and petals yellow with large brown spots, labellum saccate, yellow with brownish markings.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki (1986).

Cleisocentron pallens (Cathcart ex Lindl.) N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 118. 2001. Saccolabium pallens Cathcart ex Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 35 1858.

Epiphyte with a branched stem, sepals and petals yellowish white with pinkish tinge, labellum 3 lobed, yellowish white with rosy pink spots.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Nongpoh, 29.09.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36186; Nongpoh, 07.06.1951, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36187.

Cleisostoma appendiculatum (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex B.D. Jacks., Index Kew. 1: 555. 1893. Aerides appendiculata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 242. 1833.

Epiphyte with an erect stem, sepals and petals greenish yellow with brown coloration along veins, labellum tri lobed, White with purplish tinge.

Flowering: August – November.

Distribution: Jarain, Khasi hills, Nongstoin, Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Jarain, 19.08.1968. N.P. Balakrishnan 46817; Nongstoin, 08.2005, S. Phukan 102880; Garo hills, 17.11.2007, V.N. Singh & B. Singh 113011.

Cleisostoma aspersum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 169. 1972. Sarcanthus aspersus Rchb.f., Hamburger Garten-Blumenzeitung 21: 297. 1865.

Epiphyte, short erect stem, flowers yellow marked with pink and on lobes of labellum, labellum trilobed.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Cleisostoma filiforme (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 171 1972. Sarcanthus filiformis Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 28(Misc.): 61. 1842.

Epiphyte, stem pendulous, terete, sepals and petals dark brown with yellowish streak along midrib and at margins, labellum white with liliac tinge.

Flowering: August.

Distribution: Umsaw, Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Nongpoh, 25.09.1951, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36189, 36190; Umsaw, 02.09.1954, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36191.

Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Seidenf. & Smitin.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 172. 1972. Sarcanthus linearilobatus Seidenf. & Smitinand, Orch. Thail. (Prelim. List) 684. 1965.

Epiphyte with erect stem, sepals and petals yellow with longitudinal brown bands on either sides of midrib, labellum three lobed, spurred, purplish.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: fide Phukan (2011).

Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker Gawl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 173. 1972. Aerides paniculata Ker Gawl, Bot. Reg. 3: t. 220. 1817.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with a stiff, woody stem, sepals and petals yellow with brown markings on either sides of midrib, labellum three lobed, spurred, yellow.

Flowering: June – September.

Distribution: Pongtung.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 06.1939, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36193; Pongtung, 31.12.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36161.

Cleisostoma racemiferum (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 173. 1972. Saccolabium racemiferum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 224. 1833.

Epiphyte with erect or pendulous stem, sepals and petals greenish yellow with big dark brown spots on either sides of midrib, labellum three lobed, spurred, yellowish.

Flowering: May – August.

Distribution: Jowai-Ramtai, Sundai, Umsaw-Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Umsaw-Nongpoh, 24.07.1952, G.K. Deka, Acc. No. 36194; Jowai, 26.05.1956, R.S. Rao 2576; K. & J. Hills, 07.08.1968. S.K. Kataki 37216.

Cleisostoma simondii (Gagnep.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(3): 66. 1975. Vanda simondii Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. II, 22: 628. 1951.

Epiphyte with an erect stem, sepals and petals yellow with brownish tinge and brown stripes along veins, labellum 3-lobed, spurred, pinkish to purplish.

Flowering: August – September.

Distribution: Khasi hills, Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Damgiri-Garo hills, 08.09.1963, D.B.Deb 29295.

Cleisostoma striatum (Rchb. f.) N.E. Br., Suppl. Johnson’s Gard. Dict. 901. 1882. Echioglossum striatum Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. n.s., 12: 390. 1879.

Epiphyte with erect or pendulous stem, sepals and petals yellow with longitudinal brown bands on either sides of midrib, labellum three lobed, clawed, spurred, white.

Flowering: August.

Distribution: Shillong Peak.

Specimen examined: Shillong Peak, R.S. Rao 2809.

Cleisostoma subulatum Blume, Bijdr. 363. 1825.

Epiphyte with short pendulous stem, sepal and petal pale yellow with 2 brown bands just within the margins, labellum 3-lobed, spurred, white.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Garo hills, Nongpoh, Pedning slu Kop, Umrangshu.

Specimen examined: Norpooh Reserve, 21.07.1957, G.K. Deka 10116; Nangwalbirba-Garo hills, 19.07.1976, M.K.V. Rao 64609; Umrangshu, 26.07.2005, R.S. Barua 102866.

Diploprora championii (Lindl.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 26. 1890. Cottonia championii Lindl., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 7: 35. 1855.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with a pendant stem, sepals and petals yellow, labellum white with long acuminate apex.

Flowering: July – August.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Pynursla, Jarain

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Note: Recently observed at Pynursla & Jarain by the corresponding author.

Esmeralda clarkei Rchb.f, Gard. Chron. n.s., 26: 552. 1886.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with an elongate pendant stem, Sepals and petals white to yellow with reddish brown transverse stripes, labellum 3-lobed, white with purplish red spots.

Flowering: December – January.

Distribution: Kyllong rock.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Esmeralda cathcartii (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Xenia Orchid. 2: 39. 1862. Vanda cathcartii Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 8. 1853.

Epiphytic plant with an elongate stem, Sepals and petals white to yellow finely barred with chocolate brown, labellum 3-lobed, white with yellow margins.

Flowering: March – April.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: Khasi hills, 03.2004, S. Phukan 102814.

Gastrochilus acutifolius (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium acutifolium Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 223. 1833.

Epiphyte, with elongate, slender stems, flower dullpale green, flushed and spotted with dull brown, labellum 3-lobed, saccate, apical lobe reniform.

Flowering: November – December.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Mawsmai, Jowai, Jarain, Sutnga.

Specimen examined: Jarain, 20.07.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42757; Sutnga, 19.11.1969, N.P. Balakrishnan 50005.

Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 32. 1825. Aerides calceolaris Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Cycl. 39: 11. 1818.

Epiphyte, stem short, pendulous, flower pale green with large brown markings, labellum 3-lobed, saccate, apical lobe semicircular.

Flowering: May – June.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Dawki.

Specimen examined: Sohrarim-Cherrapunjee, 19.08.1939, S.R. Sharma 9420; Dawki, 22.04.1968, S.K. Kataki 37189.

Gastrochilus distichus (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium distichum Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 36. 1858.

Epiphyte, small pendent stem, flowers greenish yellow with irregular brown spots, labellum without apical lobe, saccate.

Flowering: November – February.

Distribution: Mawphlang.

Specimen examined: Mawphlang, 15.03.1950. G.K. Deka Acc. No 36167; Mawphlang, 06.02.1966, S.K. Kataki 37112; Mawphlang, 28.08.1966, S.K. Kataki 37128; Mawphlang, 17.111.1971, N.C. Deori 50908.

Gastrochilus inconspicuus (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium inconspicuum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 56. 1890.

Epiphyte with a terete, flexuous stem, flowers yellowish green with slight purplish tinge, labellum 3-lobed, saccate, epichile sub-reniform with apex slightly notched.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Jowai, Nongpoh, Sohrarim, Nartiang, Umsaw, Barapani.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 28.10.1956, G. Panigrahi 4123a; Nongpoh, 19.08.1959, R.O.Nongpoh 11075; Nartiang, N.P. Balakrishnan 47168; Umsaw, 15.07.1966, J. Joseph 45168; Barapani, 07.11.1983, J. Joseph 84042; Sohrarim, 17.09.2003, S.Phukan 60296.

Gastrochilus intermedius (Griff. ex Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium intermedium Griff. ex Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 33. 1858.

Epiphyte with slightly flattened, slender, branched stems, flowers yellow, boldly spotted brownish, labellum obscurely 3-lobed, saccate, apical lobe semicircular.

Flowering: August.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Blume, Rumphia 4: 50. 1849. Mesoclastes brachystachys Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 44. 1830.

Epiphyte with an erect, woody stem, flowers pale green in colour, labellum oblong-qurdrate, entire with purplish tinge.

Flowering: April – May.

Distribution: Nongkhlaw, Upper Shillong.

Specimen examined: Upper Shillong, 30.01.1958, R.S. Rao 3985; Nongkhlaw, 15.06.1958, G. Panigrahi 16268.

Luisia filiformis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 23. 1890.

Epiphyte with pendulous or arching stem, flowers open one at a time, pale green to white, labellum pale green to dark purplish brown.

Flowering: April – June.

Distribution: West Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: West Khasi hills (on way to Rynkhu), 07.05.1975, G.H. Bhawmik 62029.

Luisia psyche Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 21: 98. 1863.

Epiphyte with an elongate stout stem, flowers green to yellow, labellum 3-lobed, yellow with velvety dark brown ridges.

Flowering: May.

Distribution: Shillong, Smit, Jowai.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 23.05.1970, N.P. Balakrishnan 50244.

Luisia teretifolia Gaudich., Voy. Uranie 426. 1829.

Epiphyte, stem stout, terete, flowers pale green, labellum 3-lobed, entire, dark purplish – brown.

Flowering: May – June.

Distribution: Dawki, Umsning, Baghmara.

Specimen examined: Baghmara, 13.12.1960, G. Panigrahi 222532.

Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 63. 1849. Vanda trichorhiza Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: t. 72. 1823.

Epiphyte with a stout, unbranched stem, sepals and petals pale green with faint purple lines, labellum obscurely 3-lobed, entire, pale green with purple tinge.

Flowering: March – April.

Distribution: Jaintia hills, Jowai, Khasi hills, Nogstoin.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 27.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5210; Nongstoin, 15.06.1958, G. Panigrahi 16267.

Luisia volucris Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 1 1853.

Epiphyte with a stout stem, sepals and petals pale green to white, labellum having dark purple hypochile and sub-reniform white epichile with dark purple stripes.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Jowai.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Micropera mannii (Hook.f.) T.Tang & F.T.Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 94. 1951. Sarcochilus mannii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 36. 1890.

Epiphyte with a branched stem, flowers pale pinkish, labellum saccate, yellowish in colour.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Jowai, Cherrapunjee, Shillong, Pynursla – Dawki, Garampani.

Specimen examined: Mawsmai, 27.07.1946, G.K Deka Acc. No. 36088; Pynursla – Dawki 25.11.1956, G. Panigrahi 4642; Garampani, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka Acc. No.5132; Jarrain road, 24.07.1957, G.K. Deka 10157A; Shillong CF. campound G.K. Deka 36090; Molicho-Jowai, 23.07.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42906; Pynursla–Dawki 17.09.1970, P.K. Hajra 38700.

Micropera obtusa (Lindl.) T.Tang & F.T.Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 94. 1951. Camarotis obtusa Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 30 (Misc.): 73. 1844.

Epiphyte with an erect stem, sepals and petals white to pale-rose, labellum slightly saccate, yellow.

Flowering: July – September.

Distribution: Garo hills, Jowai, Nongpoh, Garampani.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 26.05.1956, R.S. Rao 2550; Jowai, 22.07.1957, G.K. Deka 5019; Balapakram-Garo hills, 14.09.1975, M.K.V. Rao 64112; Garampani, B. Baruah, 66260.

Micropera pallida (Roxb.) Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1522. 1832. Aerides pallida Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3: 475. 1832.

Epiphyte with a stout, robust stem, sepals and petals yellow, labellum slightly saccate, yellow.

Flowering: May – June.

Distribution: Pongtung, Garampani.

Specimen examined: Garampani, 28.11.1948, G.K. Deka, Acc. No. 36097; Pongtung, 31.12.1950, G.K.Deka, Acc. No. 36099; Garampani, 18.05.1957, G. Panigrahi 9419; K. & J. Hills, S.K. Kataki 34584.

Micropera rostrata (Roxb.) N.P.Balakr., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67: 66. 1970. Aerides rostrata Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3: 474. 1832.

Epiphyte with an erect stem, sepals and petals pink coloured, labellum saccate, pink coloured.

Flowering: May – June.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Mawmluh, Jowai, Mawsmai, Umkhlaw, Dawki, Pynursla, Jowai – Jarain.

Specimen examined: Mawsmai, 17.05.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36091; Mamluh, 12.05.1964, A.S. Rao 36759; Umkhlaw, 31.05.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42562; Cherrapunjee, 26.06.1968, S.K. Kataki 27212; Jowai-Jarain, 20.06.1970, N.P. Balakrshnan 50247; Cherrapunjee, 21.06.1971, A.S. Rao 50815; Sohrarim-Cherrapunjee, 14.06.1972. T.M. Hynniewta 50880; Cherrapunjee, 06.2000, S. Phukan 60269.

Ornithochilus difformis (Wall ex Lindl.) Shltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 277. 1919. Aerides difforme Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 242. 1833.

Epiphyte with a short stem, flowers yellow with brown bands, labellum dark brown, apical lobe divided into 3 lobules 2 lateral one pectinate & centeral one is entire.

Flowering: July – August.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Mawsmai, Pynursla, Syndai- Jaintia hills, Nongurilbibra-Garo hills, Upper Shillong.

Specimen examined: Pynursla, 04.11.1938, S.R. Sharma 20244; Mawsmai, 27.07.1946, G.K. Deka 36207; Cherrapunjee, 28.08.1950, G.K. Deka 36208; Mawsmai cave, 28.09.1956, G. Panigrahi 3726; Pynursla, 25.11.1956, G. Panigrahi 4609; Upper Shillong, 29.07.1959, G. Panigrahi 18374; Mawsmai cave, 22.09.1967, H. Deka 37729; Cherrapunjee, 13.05.1968, S.K. Kataki 37205; Syndai-Jaintia hills, 17.08.1968, N.P. Balakrishnan 46171; K. & J. hills, S.K. Kataki 49418; Nongurilbibra-Garo hills, 27.07.1973, M.K.V. Rao 64564; Cherrapunjee, 20.07.1974, R. Sehgal 53044; Cherrapunjee, 23.07.1983, K.M. Joseph 84009; Mawsmai, 01.11.1983, K.M. Joseph 84036.

Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr., Orchis 9: 78. 1915. Dendrobium teres Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3: 485. 1832.

Epiphyte with a branching, terete, very long stem, flowers pink, labellum 3-lobed, epichile bilobed, pink, hypochile yellowish.

Flowering: February – March.

Distribution: Bholaganj, Dawki, Byrnihat, Mairang, Nongpoh, Shillong Peak.

Specimen examined: Bholaganj, 09.12.1947, G.K. Deka 22473; Shillong Peak, 22.08.1952, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36146; Mairang, 11.02.1953, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36147; Dawki, 01.06.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42660.

Papilionanthe uniflora (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 372. 1974. Mesoclastes uniflora Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 45. 1830.

Epiphyte, Stem branched, pendulous, flowers white with pink flush on spur, labellum 3-lobed white.

Flowering: March – April.

Distribution: Jaintia hills, Markasa, Shillong Peak, Burnihat, Mawphlang.

Specimen examined: Shillong Peak, 21.06.1916, U.N. Kanjilal 7026; Burnihat, 14.02.1932 S.R. Sharma 9868; Mawphlang, 03.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36109; Shillong Peak, 18.03.1952, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36111; Markasa, 27.03.1963, G.V. Subbarao 28344.

Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 372. 1974. Aerides vandarum Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1867: 997. 1867.

Epiphyte with erect or pendent stem, flowers white with slight pinkish tinge, labellum 3-lobed, creamy white with slight purplish tinge.

Flowering: February – April.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Mawphlang, Markasa, Shillong Peak, Mulki hills.

Specimen examined: Shillong Peak, 20.03.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36127; Cherrapunjee, 20.10.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36128; Shillong Peak, 28.09.1959, G.K. Deka 19142; Shillong Peak, G.K. Deka 25667; Mulki hills, 23.04.1960, C.M. Arora 155; Dawki, 19.03.2003, S. Phukan 60280.

Pelatantheria insectifera (Rchb. f.) Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 373. 1896. Sarcanthus insectifer Rchb.f. Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 15: 159. 1857.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with branched, laterally compressed stem, flowers greenish yellow with brown bands, labellum 3-lobed, entire, apical lobe pink.

Flowering: May.

Distribution: Jowai, Pynursla.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 28.10.1957, G. Panigrahi 4123.

Pennilabium proboscidcum A.S. Rao & J. Joseph, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10: 231. 1969.

Epiphyte with short stem, sepals and petals fimbriate at margin, yellow, labellum white in colour.

Flowering: July – August.

Distribution: Umran-Umsaw (Nongpoh).

Specimen examined: Umran-Umsaw, 23.07.1966, A.S Rao 45622 (Isotype!)

Phalaenopsis mannii Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1871: 902. 1871.

Epiphyte with short pendulous stem, flowers greenish yellow with prominent vertical or horizontal brown markings, labellum yellow with pink mesochile.

Flowering: March – May.

Distribution: Dulong, Darugiri-Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Darugiri-Garo hills, 14.03.1975, M.K.V. Rao 61429.

Phalaenopsis taenialis (Lindl.) Christenson & Pradhan, Indian Orchid J. 1: 154. 1985. Aerides taenialis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 239. 1833.

Epiphyte with flat roots and miniature stem, flowers delicate, purplish pink, labellum, light pink at hypochile and dark pink to purple at epichile.

Flowering: May.

Distribution: Mairang, Shillong Peak, Pongtung, Raliang, Wards Lake.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 06.1940, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36073; Shillong Peak, 07.05.1956, G.K. Deka, Acc. No. 36074; Railiang, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5125; Mairang, 21.03.1962, G.V. Subbarao, 28066; Wards Lake, 14.05.1964, S.K. Kataki 34591; Shillong Peak, 05.12.1965, S.K. Kataki 37106.

Phalaenopsis deliciosa Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover)

Epiphyte with miniature stem, sepals and petals pale rosy white to white spotted with pink at base, labellum yellow with pinkish – purple markings.

Flowering: August – September.

Distribution: Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Balpakram National Park-Garo hills, 09.06.2011, Ramesh Kumar 104006.

Pteroceras teres (Blume) Holttum, Kew Bull. 14: 271. 1960. Dendrocolla teres Blume, Bijdr. 289. 1825.

Epiphyte with miniature to small sized, pendant stem, flowers fragrant, yellow spotted with brown, labellum 3-lobed, yellow dark purple-brown at tip.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Jaintia hills, Pongtung, Jowai-Badarpur Road, Burnihat, Garampani.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 22.03.1938, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36093; Burnihat, 14.11.1956, G. Panigrahi 4355; Jowai-Badarpur Road, 22.07.1957, G.K. Deka 10137; Garampani, 19.06.1963, D.B. Deb 35138.

Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume, Bijdr. 286. 1825. Epidendrum retusum L., Sp. Pl. 953. 1753.

Epiphyte with stout, repent, short stem, Flowers pinkish white variously marked with purple, labellum entire, purplish.

Flowering: April – May.

Distribution: Bholaganj, Dawki, Raliang, Nongpoh, Jaintia hills, Rongrengiri-Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Garo hills, U.N. Kanjilal 6937; Nongpoh, 25.04.1935, S.R. Sharma 11004; Bholaganj, 09.12.1947, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36086; Nongpoh, 01.1949, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36082; Railaing, 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5121; Rongrengiri-Garo hills, 27.04.1974, M.K.V. Rao 59455; Jaintia hills, 1988, A.K. Baishya 105665.

Robiquetia succisa (Lindl.) Seidenf. & Garay, Bot. Tidsskr. 67: 119. 1972. Sarcanthus succisus Lindl., Bot. Reg. 12: t. 1014. 1826.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with a pendant, slender, stem, flowers greenish yellow with few purplish-brown markings, labellum 3-lobed, yellow.

Flowering: September – October.

Distribution: Umsaw.

Specimen examined: Umsaw, 17.12.1949, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36169.

Saccolabiopsis pusilla (Lindl.) Seidenf. & Garay, Bot. Tidsskr. 67: 118. 1972. Oeceoclades pusilla Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 237. 1833.

Epiphyte with flattened roots and a small stem, flowers white with purple flush, labellum 3-lobed, purple spot present at base of epichile.

Flowering: March – April.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee-Shillong.

Specimen examined: Cherrapunjee-Shillong, 29.09.1956, G. Panigrahi 3682.

Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J.J. Sm., Natuurw. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 72: 100. 1912. Saccolabium gemmatum Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 50. 1838.

Epiphyte with pendulous stem, Flowers purplish externally while whitish from inside, labellum entire, white.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Jowai, Jarain.

Specimen examined: Jowai, 26.05.1956, R.S. Rao 2575; Jarain-Jowai, 20.07.1965, N.P. Balakrishnan 42758.

Smitinandia micrantha (Lindl.) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Singapore 25: 106. 1969. Saccolabium micranthum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 220. 1833.

Epiphyte with branching, pendulous stem, Flowers white with purple tinge, labellum 3-lobed, pinkish purple.

Flowering: July – August.

Distribution: Jarain, Cherrapunjee, Pongtung, Dawki, Mawsmai, Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Dawki, 27.04.1940, R.N. De 19793; Pongtung, 31.12.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36200; Cherrapunjee-Mawsmai, 28.09.1956, G. Panigrahi 3726a; Dawki, 18.04.1964, S.K. Kataki 34388.

Staurochilus ramosus (Lindl.) Seidenf., Opera Bot. 95: 95. 1988. Saccolabium ramosum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 224. 1833.

Epiphyte with a short stem, Flowers yellow densely marked with brown, labellum white with yellow spot at mesochile.

Flowering: May.

Distribution: Balat, Ranikor.

Specimen examined: fide Seidenfaden (1988).

Stereochilus hirtus Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 38. 1858.

Epiphyte with a short stem, floral axis densely hairy, flowers yellow to pink, labellum 3-lobed, white to pink.

Flowering: June – July.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Taeniophyllum crepidiforme (King & Pantl.) King & Pantl., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8: 245. 1898. Sarcochilus crepidiformis King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 64(2): 340. 1895.

Epiphyte with large flattened roots and a minute stem, flowers greenish yellow, labellum, saccate, whitish.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Nongpoh, Elephant falls

Specimen examined: Nongpoh, 23.07. 1966, J. Joseph 45619; Elephant falls, 09.04.1971, P.K. Hajra, B.P. Uniyal, M.S. Swaminathan 38240.

Taeniophyllum glandulosum Blume, Bijdr. 356. 1825.

Epiphyte with slightly flattened roots and minute leafless stem, flower yellow to pale green in colour, labellum yellow.

Flowering: May – July.

Distribution: Shillong, Laitumkhrah, Jowai-Jarain, Pynursla.

Specimen examined: Woodlands 13.03.1970, J. Joseph, 37241; Jowai-Jarain, 07.2013, S.K.Singh s.n. (live).

Note: Taeniophyllum khasianum J. Joseph & Yogan. is synonymous with this species.

Thrixspermum centipeda Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 520. 1790.

Epiphyte or lithophyte with small stem, flowers pale white to orange-white, labellum 3-lobed, spotted red.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Shillong Peak.

Specimen examined: Shillong Peak, 07.1937, N.L. Bor & G.K. Deka 15792.

Thrixspermum musciflorum A.S.Rao & J.Joseph, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11: 204.1969 ‘1971’.

Epiphyte with small pendulous stem, flowers yellow in colour, labellum 3-lobed, white.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Umran, Pongtung, Umsaw, Nongpoh.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 06.1940, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 41781.

Note: Similar to T. pygmaeum but differs in having longer inflorescence than the leaf and short lateral lobes of the lip.

Thrixspermum pauciflorum (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 682. 1891. Sarcochilus pauciflorus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 41. 1890.

Epiphyte with erect, rigid stem, sepals and petals white, labellum 3-lobed, yellow.

Flowering: July.

Distribution: Khasi hills.

Specimen examined: Khasi hills, 14.07.2003, A.A. Mao 68283.

Thrixspermum pygmaeum (King & Pantl.) Holttum, Kew Bull. 14: 275. 1960. Sarcochilus pygmaeus King & Pantl ., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8: 207. 1898.

Epiphyte with small pendulous stem, flowers yellow in colour, labellum 3-lobed, white.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Tuberolabium coarctatum (King & Pantl.) J.J.Wood., Nordic J. Bot. 10: 481. 1990. Saccolabium coarctatum King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 592. 1897.

Epiphytic with selender pendulous stem, flowers opening one at a time, fugacious, labellum shorter than petals

Flowering: June.

Distribution: Amwee (Jaintia hills).

Specimen examined: fide King & Pantling (1897).

Uncifera acuminata Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 40. 1858.

Epiphyte with terete, slender stem, flowers pale green in colour with faint purplish brown markings, labellum 3-lobed, saccate, yellowish green.

Flowering: August – September.

Distribution: Cherrapunjee, Sohrarim, Dumpep, Pynursla.

Specimen examined: Dumpep, 20.07.1930, P.C. Kanjilal 8223; Cherra road, 23.09.1937, G.K. Deka 20268; Sohrarim, 19.08.1939, S.R. Sharma 9420; Cherrapunjee, 11.11.1952, G.K.Deka Acc. No. 36156.

Uncifera obtusifolia Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 40. 1858.

Epiphyte with pendulous stem, flowers pale yellow with shades of dark brown, labellum 3-lobed, saccate, yellow.

Flowering: August – September.

Distribution: Pynursla, Pongtung, Jarain, Nongthlaw, Umran, Shella.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 22.08.1938, G.K. Deka 20245; Umran, 25.07.1948, G.K. Deka 36175; Nongthlaw, 18.08.1968, N.P. Balakrishnan 46737; Pynursla, 26.08.1980, A.N. Rao 73560; Shella, 21.09.2007, S.J. Phukan 113010.

Vanda alpina (Lindl.) Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 10 1853. Luisia alpina Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 24 (Misc.): 56. 1838.

Epiphyte with small terete stem, flowers greenish white- yellow, labellum 3-lobed, purplish brown.

Flowering: June.

Distribution: Jarain, Nongstoin, Lum-soh phate loneng- Ri Bhoi.

Specimen examined: Lum-soh phate loneng Ri Bhoi, 15.09.2003, N.N. Rabha 60294.

Vanda coerulea Griff. ex Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 33: t. 30. 1847.

Epiphyte with erect, stout, stem, flowers blue (shows variation from bluish white to blue), labellum 3-lobed, deep azure blue.

Flowering: September – December.

Distribution: Shillong, Nongpoh – Barapani, Barapani, Jowai, Garo hills.

Specimen examined: Shillong, 05.09.1952, G.K. Deka Acc. No.41309; Bhai-longbong-near Barapani, 19.09.1958, G.K. Deka 17181; Jowai, 21.10.1959, G.K. Deka, Acc. No. 3911; Jaintia hills, 27.08.1968, N.P. Balakrishnan 47198; Nongpoh to Barapani, 23.10.1983, R.S. Rathore 84026.

Vanda cristata Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 216. 1833.

Epiphyte with small terete stem, flowers greenish white-yellow, labellum 3-lobed, 2 horn like structure present at apex, purplish brown.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Jowai, Pongtung, Raliang, Tura.

Specimen examined: Pongtung, 31.10.1952, G.K. Deka Acc. No..36133; Raliang (Jowai), 24.01.1957, G.K. Deka 5114; Tura, 12.12.1960, G. Panigrahi 22523.

Note: The allied to Vanda alpina, but latter differ in having lip apex without horn like structure.

Vanda jainii A.S. Chauhan, J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 5: 977. 1984.

Epiphyte with erect stem, flowers greenish yellow, labellum 3-lobed, apical lobe with 3 horn like appendages traversed by purple ridges and furrows.

Flowering: March – August.

Distribution: Sonapahar.

Specimen examined: fide Chauhan (1984).

Vanda pumila Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 53. 1890.

Epiphyte with a short, stout stem, flowers fragrant, creamy white coloured, labellum 3-lobed, creamy white marked by several red stripes.

Flowering: June.

Distribution: Nongstoin.

Specimen examined: fide Kataki l.c.

Vandopsis undulata (Lindl.) J.J.Sm., Natuurw. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 72: 77. 1912. Vanda undulata Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 42. 1858.

Epiphyte with an elongate stem, flowers white with slight pinkish tinge, labellum 3-lobed, yellowish green striped with pink.

Flowering: April.

Distribution: Jarain, Mawphlang, Shillong, Elephant falls, Laitkor, Shillong Peak, Pomlakrai.

Specimen examined: Shillong Peak, 10.11.1947, G.K. Deka 36066; Elephant falls, 27.09.1950, G.K. Deka Acc. No. 36068; Jarain road, 24.07.1957, G.K. Deka 10157; Shillong Peak, 22.12. 1957, G. Panigrahi 3979; Shillong Peak, 08.01.1959, R.S. Rao 14094; Mawphlang, 02.02.1960, G. Panigrahi 21331; Shillong Peak, 21.04.1960, C.M. Arora 140; Laitkor, 19.11.1962, S.K. Kar 29444; Pomlakrai, 31.03.2013, E. Nonglait 101199.

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata for facilities.

References

Kataki, S.K. 1986. Orchids of Meghalaya. Government of Meghalaya, Shillong.

King, G. and Pantling, R. 1897. Some New Indo-Malayan Orchids. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal Part II Natural History 66: 578-605.

Garay, L.A. 1972. On the systematics of the monopodial orchids I. Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University 23(4): 149 – 212.

Phukan. S. 2011. The genus Cleisostoma Blume (Orchidaceae) in India. Nelumbo 53: 161 – 182.

Rao, A.N. 2009. Monopodial orchids of Arunachal Pradesh (India)- Classification, Taxonomy, Distribution and conservation. Bulletin Arunachal Forest Research 25(1-2): 55 – 92.

Seidenfaden, G. 1988. Orchid genera in Thailand 14. Opera Botanica 95: 1 – 398.

Szlachetko, D.L. 1995. Systema Orchidalium. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, Supplementum 3: 1 – 152.

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