Ex-situ Conservation of Orchids from Murlen National Park, Champhai, Mizoram

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Authors

Ramesh Kumar & S. K. Singh

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong -793003

email: rkpaliwalbsi@yahoo.com; sksbsinc@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Thirty two species of orchids were collected and have been conserved in the experimental botanic garden of BSI at Barapani. Four species viz., Bulbophyllum thomsonii  Hook.f., Epigeneium naviculare (M.S. Balakr. & S. Chowdhury) Hynn. & Wadhwa, Oberonia caulescens Lindl. and Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenf. as new records for State of Mizoram.

Keywords Orchid, Mizoram, Conservation.

Introduction

Orchids due to their attractive flowers have caught the attention of common men, tourist, foresters, students and researchers. The North East India is a storehouse of orchid diversity and c. 860 species of orchids known to occur here (Chowdhery, 2009 and literature therein). Mizoram is well explored among the NE Indian States, harbors 246 species falling under 74 genera (Singh et al., 1990). During in a field excursion trip for the ex-situ conservation programme of Botanical Survey of India, Shillong the authors collected live orchid species from the Murlen National Park of Champai district of Mizoram in 2009 for ex-situ conservation. Most of the plants collected were mostly in sterile condition and these were transplanted in Experimental Botanic Garden, Umiam, Barapani, Ri-bhoi District, Meghalaya.  Sterile plants were regularly observed for flowering. The study reveals the occurrence of 32 species from Murlen National Park which including several rare species and 4 new reports viz.  Bulbophyllum thomsonii, Epigeneium naviculare, Oberonia caulescens and Oberonia mucronata from the State. All plants are thriving well in Experimental Botanic Garden.

Systematic Enumeration

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 177. 1883.

A terrestrial orchid with conical pseudobulbs and yellowish flower; known from Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram states of NE India. Flowers in month of June – July. Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Aerides roseum Lodd.. ex  Paxt. Fl. Gard. 2: 109.t.60. 1852.

An epiphytic commonly known as fox tail orchid with oblong-lanceolate, thick, fleshy leaves and rose purple flowers; known from Assam,  Mizoram & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of  May – June. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. in Bull. New York. Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910. Bletia graminifolia D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 29.1825.

A terrestrial, commonly known as bamboo orchid with thin bamboo like 60-130 cm tall stems with pinkish-purple flowers; known from all the states of NE Indian states. Flowers in month of June – October Transplanted in moist soil and open places.

Bulbophyllum polyrrhizum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 53. 1830.

An epiphytic species with ovoid-globose pseudobulbs, leafless when flowering scape erect slender and greenish flower known from Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of  March. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Bulbophyllum reptans  (Lindl.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 51. 1830. Tribrachia reptans Lindl., Coll. Bot. ad pl. 41a. 1826.

An epiphytic orchid with obpyriform pseudobulb and whitish – yellow flowers; known from Arunachal, Nagaland, Mizoram Meghalaya & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of March. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Bulbophyllum thomsonii  Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 778. 1890.

An epiphyte with conical pseudobulb and whitish or creamy flowers; known from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Flowers in month of March. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places. Present work reports it for the first time from State of Mizoram.

Bulbophyllum umbellatum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 56. 1830..

An Epiphytic orchid with ovoid pseudobulb and greenish flowers; known from Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Sikkim states of NE India & Darjeeling. Flowers in month of May. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 250. 1833. Centrosis sylvatica Thouars. Hist. Orchid. pl. 35 .1822.

A terrestrial orchid with cylindric pseudobulbous and purplish violet flowers; known from all the states of NE India. Flowers in month of august – September.  Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Coelogyne punctulata Lindl. in Coll. Bot., sub. pl. 33. 1821.

An epiphytic orchid with ovoid or subglobose pseudobulb  and white flowers; known from Assam,  Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur & Nagaland states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – May. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. in Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 73. 1799. Epidendrum aloifolium L., Sp. Pl. 953. 1753.

An epiphytic orchid with short pseudobulbs and yellowish with purple mid nerved flowers; known from all the states of NE India. Flowers in month of  May – June. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Dendrobium acinaciforme Roxb., Fl. Ind,  3: 487. 1832.

An epiphytic orchid with compressed pseudostem and white or pale yellow flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur & Nagaland states of NE India. Flowers in month of  June – July . Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) C.E.C. Fisch. in Gamble, Fl. Madras 8: 1416. 1928. Limodorum aphyllum Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 34. pl. 41. 1795.

An epiphytic orchid with compressed pseudostem and creamy white flowers; known from all the states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – May. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Dendrobium densiflorum Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 34, pl .40. 1830.

An epiphytic orchid with compressed pseudostem and pale yellow flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – June. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Dendrobium falconeri Hook. f., Bot. Mag. 82:  ad pl. 4944. 1856.

An epiphytic orchid with long and noded pseudostem and white with purple tinged; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur & Nagaland states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – June. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Dendrobium infundibulum Lindl. in J.Linn. Soc.., Bot. 3: 16. 1859.

An epiphytic orchid with compressed pseudostem and white flowers; known from Assam, Manipur & Mizoram states of NE India. Flowers in month of March – April. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Epigeneium naviculare (M.S. Balakr. & S. Chowdhury) Hynn. & Wadhwa, Orchids Nagaland 163. 2000. Katherinea navicularis M.S. Balakr. & S. Chowdhury, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: 316. 1967.

An epiphytic rare species is distinct from the widely distributed Epigeneium amplum Lindl. in its flower characters which are Yellow in colour with light brown lip and are without any lining on sepals and petals. This is one of the endemic species of NE India known from Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Sikkim only. Plant blooms in the month of November – December. Transplanted on a tree trunk at moist place. Present work reports it for the first time from State of Mizoram.

Eria acervata Lindl., in J. Hort. Soc. London 6: 57. 1851.

An epiphytic orchid with ellipsoid pseudobulb and white flowers with yellow lip; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland & Sikkim. Flowers in month of June – July. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Eria excavata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 67. 1830.

A terrestrial orchid with ovoid to subcylindric pseudobulbs and purplish whitish flower; known from Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram states of NE India. Flowers in month of May – July. Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Esmeralda clarkei  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron., n.s., 26: 552. 1886.

A lithophytic rarely epiphytic orchid with yellow flowers; known from Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya & Sikkim states of NE India. Blooms in month of September – November. Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Flickingeria fugax (Rchb. f.) Seidenf., Dansk. Bot. Ark. 34 (1): 46. 1980. Dendrobium fugax Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. 1257. 1871.

An epiphytic orchid with a terete, branching stem carrying an elliptic, smooth pseudobulb; inflorescence arising from near the apex of the bulb with purplish white flowered; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur & Nagaland states of NE India. Flowers in month of  July – October. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 32. 1825. Aerides calceolaris Buch.-Ham. ex Sm., Cycl. 39: Aerides n. 11. 1819.

An epiphytic orchid with slender stem and translucent cream marked with dark brown spotted flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of  February – April. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: ad pl. 39. 1823. Neottia procera Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg 8: ad pl. 639. 1822. (1823).

A terrestrial species with a whitish stout stem and many peteloid leaves, many scented white flowers on long erect spike; known from all the states of NE India. Blooms in month of April – July. Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 31. 1830. Malaxis viridiflora Blume in Bijdr., Fl. Ned. Ind. 8: 392. 1825.

An epiphytic orchid with oblong-cylindric pseudobulb and greenish-white flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya & Nagaland states of NE India. Flowers in month of  June – July . Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Neogyna gardneriana (Lindl.) Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 931. 1852. Coelogyne gardneriana Lindl. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 33. t.38. 1830.

An epiphytic or lithophytic orchid with oblong-cylindric pseudobulbs and white flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland & Sikkim. Blooms in month of October – December. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Oberonia caulescens Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 15. 1830.

An epiphytic miniature species, with linear-ensiform, acute to acuminate, slightly fleshy, sessile, jointed leaves and light brown many flowered Inflorescence. It is distributed in Eastern & Western Himalaya, Meghalaya, Nagaland in NE India.  Plant blooms in the month of August-September. Transplanted on a tree trunk at moist place. Present work reports it for the first time from State of Mizoram.

Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenf. in Seidenfaden, Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand. 13: 20. 1997. Stelis mucronata D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 32. 1825.

An epiphytic miniature species with radical to ensiform leaves and dense to lax yellowish or greenish flowered. This was long known under the name Oberonia iridifolia Roxb. ex. Lindl. It is reported from Andaman, Southern India, Eastern Himalaya and Meghalya, Nagaland, Manipur in NE India. Plant blooms in the month of October-November. Transplanted on a tree trunk at moist place. Present work reports it for the first time from State of Mizoram.

Otochilus fuscus Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 35. 1830.

An epiphytic species with cylindric pseudobulb and white, fragrant flowers; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of  November – December. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr., Orchis 9: 78. 1915. Dendrobium teres Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 485. 1832.

An epiphytic orchid with slender pseudostem and terete leaves; flowers pink coloured; known from all the states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – May. Transplanted on tree trunks in shady places.

Phaius flavus (Blume) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 128. 1831. Limodorum flavum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 8: 375. 1825.

A terrestrial orchid with conical pseudobulbs and yellowish flower; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of March – May. Transplanted in earthen pot in shady places.

Phaius tancarvilleae (L’Hér.) Blume in Mus. Bot. 2: 177. 1856. Limodorum tancarvilleae L’Hér., Sert. Angl. 17. 1789.

A terrestrial orchid with conical or oblong pseudobulbs and whitish brown flower and pink to reddish tube of lip; known from Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura & Sikkim states of NE India. Flowers in month of March – May. Transplanted in earthen pots and orchid beds in shady places.

Pholidota imbricata Hook., Exot. Fl. 2: ad pl. 138. 1825.

An epiphytic or lithophytic species with narrowly ovoid to cylindric pseudobulbs and white flowers; known from all the states of NE India. Blooms in month of June – July. Transplanted in earthen pot & on the trunks of trees in shady places.

Rhynchostylis retusa ( L.) Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 7: 286. 1825.  Epidendrum retusum L., Sp. Pl. 953. 1753.

An epiphytic orchid with sessile linear-oblong leaves and white with scattered pink blotched flowers; known from all the states of NE India. Flowers in month of April – June. Transplanted on tree trunks in open places.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata and to Head of the Office, Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong for facilities and encouragement. Authors are extending there sincere thanks to the Forest Department of Mizoram for logistic support during field exploration. Thanks are also due to Dr. (Mrs.) S. J. Phukan, former Joint Director, Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong for her help in identification of few species.

References

  1. Chowdhery, H. J., Orchid Diversity in North-Eastern States of India. J. Orchid Soc. India, 2009, 23, 19-42.
  2. Singh, D. K., Wadhwa, B. M., Singh, K. P., A Conspectus of Orchids of Mizoram: Their Status and Conservation. J. Orchid Soc. India, 1990, 4: 51-64.

Epigeneium naviculare (M.S. Balakr. & S. Chowdhury) Hynn. &

Oberonia caulescens Lindl.

Bulbophyllum thompsonii Hook. f.

Dendrobium falconerii Hook. f.

 

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