# Appraisal of the attributes of potato production technology

Abstract

The study was conducted in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya to study the farmer’s perceptions of the attributes of the potato technology namely improved agro techniques, potato protection and on farm storage technique. It was found that potato technologies had a high degree of simplicity, compatibility, observability, trialability, divisibility, and predictability; medium levels of relative advantage, complexity, cost requirements, and profitability.

Keywords Potato, agricultural technology, farmer’s perceptions

# Diagnosis of dhatura poisoning: a comparative study of the signs and symptoms as per ayurvedic and modern classics

Abstract

The incidence of Dhatura poisoning is not uncommon. It can occur accidentally due to chewing of the seed with rice or other eatables. Previously accidental exposure to this poison was more when the plant was available abundantly. But now the availability of this plant is gradually reducing but the incidence of its use as hallucinogen is increasing. Dhatura or “Road Poison” is surreptitiously used with betel leaf, tea etc. to rob travellers as it stupefies the person. The victims are commonly rescued from the roadside in a semiconscious state. They can recall only some parts of the incident that had happened. Diagnosis of Dhatura poisoning, as per the Modern texts, can be done basing upon the 9Ds (9 signs and symptoms started with “D”). In Ayurvedic Classics i.e. in Charaka and Susruta Samhita, there is no discussion regarding the signs and symptoms of Dhatura poisoning. Astanga Sangraha/ Hridaya and some Nighantus (Pharmacopoea) discussed on the point which may be taken as criteria for diagnosis of Dhatura poisoning.

Keywords Dhatura poisoning, Road Poison, Susruta Samhita, Astanga Sangraha/ Hridaya, Nighantus.

# Earthquake Disaster Risk Mitigation for Northeast India

Abstract

The Northeastern region of India has witnessed several devastating earthquakes such as the 1869, 1897, 1950 great earthquakes and some high magnitude earthquakes ranging from 6.0 to 8.7. In the light of scientific earthquake predictions given for the region, urgent measures need to be taken for earthquake disaster risk mitigation, both structural as well as non-structural, in addition to efforts made so far.National disasters policies and programmes are yielding results in generating awarenessand increasing the level of preparedness, which are vital for mitigation of disasters.In this paper some aspects are discussed in specific areas of Capacity Building,Techno-Legal Framework, Techno-Financial Regime., and enforcement of Rules &Regulations to further strengthen the institution of disaster management in carrying out structural and non-structural mitigation measures.

Keywords Earthquake, Northeast India, Meghalaya, Shillong

# Space-time singularity and Raychaudhuri equation

Abstract

Prof A.K. Raychaudhuri’s deep involvement and observation with the singularity problem in General Relativity paved way to the formulation of famous Raychaudhuri Equation in General Relativity in general and Cosmology in particular. One of his early concerns was to construct a model of a collapsing homogenous dust ball and show that nothing prevented the ball from collapsing down to the centre r = 0 and thereby demystifying the so-called Schwarzschild singularity at r = 2M. Then, he addressed the most pertinent question of his time: is the cosmic singularity predicted by the FRW model an artifact of the homogeneity and isotropy of space or not? In fact, inspired by the famous Gödel solution, he was looking for a rotating non-singular solution without closed time-like lines. In the process, he discovered his celebrated equation which made the singularity analysis free and independent of these restrictions. The observation and consequent formulation ultimately led to the powerful Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems which established in a very general way, the inevitability of the occerence of singularity in Einstein’s gravity under reasonable energy and causality conditions.The present paper is a brief review of the celebrated Raychaudhuri equation.

Keywords Raychaudhuri Equation, singularity, General relativity, Cosmology.

# Flowering of a Bamboo Ampelocalamus patellaris

Abstract

Ampelocalamus patellaris (Gamble) Stapleton (Dendrocalamus patellaris Gamble) a bamboo was earlier described by Gamble from a doubtful flowering specimen collected by G.Mann. This doubtful specimen was later identified as Dendrocalamus hamiltonii. The true A. patellaris recently flowered in Sikkim in December 2013. The bamboo has now been described for the first time on the basis of flowering material obtained from Sikkim. Paper provides detailed nomenclature, distribution, phenology, illustration and photographs of the species.

Keywords Bamboo, Ampelocalamus patellaris, flowering.

# Contributions of Nathaniel Wallich in the context of his time and habitats.

Abstract

The career and achievements of Nathaniel Wallich were deeply influenced by his habitats and time. Notwithstanding the contributions of Denmark & Serampore to Wallich’s career, he exercised very little voluntary choice in the selection of his first two habitats. In direct contrast he voluntarily selected and actively worked to secure his next two habitats. He used official positions, social benchmarks, travel, networking, publication and service to British East India Company to establish his place in the scientific (read non medical) world of the 19th century Calcutta & London. So successful were his endeavors, that he served as Professor of Botany in Calcutta Medical College and later as vice president of both the Linnaean & Royal Societies in London. Yet there remain discordant notes in his career that easily lend themselves to less than objective evaluation. His original letters put online by Kew Garden are central to a fresh appraisal.

Keywords Nathaniel Wallich, Botany, Denmark, Serampore, Calcutta, London

# Assessment of Industrial Hazard for offsite Emergency Planning and Response – A simulated study on environs of Indane (LPG) Bottling Plant, North Guwahati, Assam, India.

Abstract

Industrial disasters however low in frequency may have a great potential to damage the environment. The damage may be either immediate or long term. In present scenario most of the industrial sites are located in densely populated areas. Relocation of either of the industrial sites or important infrastructure e.g. settlement, school, hospital etc. is rarely possible, so the focus on improving the emergency preparedness, response planning, advance safety measures, mock drill etc. is becoming an integral part of the decision makers. A simulated accident scenario have been made and analysis of hazard/threat zonation has been carried out for Indane (Liquefied Petroleum Gas-LPG) Bottling Plant, Abhoyapur , North Guwahati using Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmosphere (ALOHA), Remotely Sensed data and GIS. In the present study, an attempt has been made to generate the maximum probable threat zones of key hazards such as-toxicity, flammability, thermal radiation and over pressure using various parameters. The result of the study may provide a comprehensive idea for emergency planning and response at district level.

Keywords Emergency preparedness, LPG, ALOHA, remotely sensed data, GIS

# Preliminary Investigation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of a Geothermal Spring (Hot Spring) located at Jakrem, Meghalaya, India

Abstract

The Geothermal spring located at Jakrem village in East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India was investigated for physico-chemical properties. These characteristic features play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. The objective of  undertaking this study is to understand the physico-chemical properties of the spring water and the health risk it poses for human consumption. Sixteen parameters were chosen for investigation. The spring exhibit a temperature of 47°C. A pH of 12 was observed for the spring water making it alkaline in nature. The water was very soft with very low calcium and magnesium contents. The dominant cation was observed to be sodium with potassium being the sub dominant. The alkalinity was mainly due to dissolved carbonates and hydroxides. Fluoride concentration was found to be very high i.e., 7.2 ml-1.

Keywords Geothermal, Health, Hot Spring, Physico-chemical, Risk, Toxic.

# Ludwigia natans: a potential aquatic macrophyte for cadmium bioaccumulation and Phytoremediation

Abstract

Aquatic macrophytes have tremendous potential for remediation of the heavy metal cadmium. A Laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the Cd bioaccumulation capacity of Ludwigia natans. The macrophyte was grown in the laboratory containing nutrient solution and working Cd standard solutions of different concentrations (1, 10, 50, and 100 mgL-1) and harvested at regular time interval of 5 and 10 days. The Cd accumulation by L. natans showed an increase with time and the maximum accumulation was on the 10th day at 50mgL-1 for both the roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in the plant parts was higher in the shoots as compared to the roots. The maximum bioconcentration factor values (7666) which indicate that the plant was a Cd hyperaccumulator and translocation factor values (2.8) which is >1 which points towards the suitability of L. natans for removing Cd from Cd-contaminated water.

Keywords Ludwigia natans, Cadmium, Accumulation, Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF)

# Glutamate dehydrogenase: A study of its physico-chemical properties from the liver of mice of two different age groups

Abstract

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) an enzyme which catalyze the reversible formation of glutamate from $\alpha$-ketoglutarate, occupies a central position in mammalian nitrogen metabolism since the reaction which it catalyze provides the major pathway by which ammonia become bound to the $\alpha$-carbon atom of an $\alpha$-ketoacid to generate glutamate. The activity of GDH is influenced by a number of physical and chemical parameters that contributes to its stability as well as its activity. Physico-chemical studies of partially purified GDH from two age groups (10- and 90-day old), from the mice liver tissue are reported.

Keywords GDH, physico-chemical, mice

# Anthropogenic threats and plant diversity conservation in Cherrapunji- one of the wettest places on Earth

Abstract

The present study was conducted in Cherrapunji plateau covering an area of 792 sq km to assess the conservation significance of the area. It is one of the wettest places on earth with an average rainfall of 11,309 mm. The vegetation of the area may be classified as subtropical broad leaved forest. However, the dominant land use of the area is non forest or degraded grassland (64.2%) followed by open forest (19.4%) and dense forest (16.4%). The area has been degraded to a large extent due to a number of human activities and many previously forested slopes are now grasslands. Most of the forests are in inaccessible areas or in the form of patches preserved by the local people due to socio-religious practices. These remnant patches are rich in plant diversity. A preliminary investigation of rare and threatened plant species reveals the presence of 137 species belonging to 95 genera and 47 families. Human activities coupled by high rainfall have been attributed as the main factors responsible for the loss of biodiversity. An attempt has also been made to evolve effective strategies for conservation and management of plant diversity of the area.

Keywords Plant diversity, rare, endemic, threatened, conservation, Cherrapunji.