Seed sterility and germination problems in Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. and S. khasiana (Dyer) Bloemb


Seed sterility and germination problems in S. wallichii (DC.) Korth. and S. khasiana (Dyer) Bloemb. (family Theaceae) has been studied. Production of high percentage of viable seeds with a capacity to germinate quickly is an ideal pre-requisite for the proliferation of tree species. Natural regeneration of S. wallichii (DC.) Korth. and S. khasiana (Dyer) Bloemb (family Theaceae) suffers due to high seed sterility (50%), poor seed germination and high seedling mortality (80 – 90%). Seed germination results showed that 25oC temperature and completed darkness was the favourable condition for germination in S. khasiana seeds. However, temperature did not have significant affect on the germination of S. wallichii seeds. In both species entire process of embryo germination was completed earlier than the seeds. Thus, the seed coat has slowed germination process in both species. Small proportion of filled seeds and lower percentage of viable embryos could be the reasons for poor regeneration of S. khasiana through seeds in nature. Contrary to this, greater proportion of filled seeds in S. wallichii with higher percentage of viable embryos are the causes of better natural regeneration.

Keywords  Schima, Theaceae, seed sterility, embryo viability

In vitro propagation of Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl., an important ornamental plant


This study was conducted to develop an efficient protocol for mass propagation of Hedychium gardnerianum. Explants from rhizome buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) alone (0.1 to 5 mg l-1) or a combination of BAP and IAA. MS medium supplemented with a combination of 0.5 mg l-1 BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 IAA produced the highest mean number of shoots (5) and highest number of roots (3.88) per explant as compared to other concentrations. Thus, combined effects of BAP and IAA improved significantly the shoot growth and proliferation. The proliferated shoots were green and healthy in appearance. Finally, healthy and complete plants with well developed roots were hardened, acclimatized and planted in the field successfully.

Keywords Hedychium gardnerianum, micropropagation, in vitro, acclimatization, ornamental plants.

Dendrobium darjeelingensis – a Less Known Orchid, New Record for Assam


Dendrobium darjeelingensis Pradhan is reported here from Assam North-east India. This constitutes second collection of the species from Indian regions and third in world. A detailed taxonomic description along with photographic illustration is provided to facilitate its future identification.

Keywords Dendrobium darjeelingensis, new record, Assam.

Three New addition to the Flora of Meghalaya


Three species of flowering plants namely Sterculia rubiginosa, Pterocymbium tinctorium var. tinctorium and Didymoplexis pallens have been described. Of these, first one recorded for the first time from North-east India and the later two are new to Meghalaya.

Keywords Meghalaya, New additions.

Ex-situ Conservation of Orchids from Murlen National Park, Champhai, Mizoram


Thirty two species of orchids were collected and have been conserved in the experimental botanic garden of BSI at Barapani. Four species viz., Bulbophyllum thomsonii Hook.f., Epigeneium naviculare (M.S. Balakr. & S. Chowdhury) Hynn. & Wadhwa, Oberonia caulescens Lindl. and Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenf. as new records for State of Mizoram.

Keywords Orchid, Mizoram, Conservation.

Cyathea brunoniana – A less known Pteridophyte from Kolasib, Mizoram


A less known CITES Species of Pteridophyte: Cyathea brunoniana (Wall. ex Hook.) Clarke & Baker is described from Kolasib, Mizoram. The illustrative photographs are also provided for its easy identification.

Keywords Cyathea brunoniana, Pteridophyte, Mizoram, Rare.

Tissue Culture – Technology Harnessed for Potato Seed Production


The potato is readily amenable to tissue culture manipulations. Many techniques have been developed for growing potato in tissue culture. As a result tissue culturally potato multiplication has successfully been incorporated in high quality potato seed production programme. Meristem culture in combination with thermotherapy and chemotherapy is now routinely utilised to obtain pathogen free potato microplants which are serially multiplied through nodal cuttings. The potato microplants can be multiplied through nodal cuttings or can be utilised for microtuber production. The microplants and microtubers are planted in polyhouses to obtain minitubers from them. These minitubers are then multiplied twice in field to increase their numbers and sizes. Aeroponics system has also been utilised for soilless production of minitubers. It has advantage over other micropropagation methods in having higher multiplication rate and greater control on the size of tubers harvested.

Keywords Tissue culture, potato seed

Indigenous knowledge on processing of ‘Godak’ – a delicacy of the tribal population in Tripura and its nutritional quality.


To document the uniqueness of food habit of tribals of Tripura initiated to conduct a survey in two villages near Lembucherra of West Tripura Dist. covering 100 households on traditional processing of Godak, a delicacy of tribal communities, its consumption pattern and nutritional qualities. Survey revealed that a majority of the population consumes the product which is a non-oily dish prepared by boiling fermented fish shidal with vegetables and consumed with rice. The plants used as ingredients bear some medicinal value. Nutritional study of the product shows 88.65% moisture, 2.4% protein, 2.04% ash, 2.067% carbohydrate and very low content of fat 0.22% and a calorific value of 19.85. Godak is nutritious, healthy and safe to eat.

Keywords Traditional recipes, Fermented food, Shidal, Tribes of Tripura, fermentation.

Study of Bioenergetics, Proximate composition and Microbiological status of leaf fish Nandus nandus (Ham.1822).


Nandus nandus (1822) is a preferred fish in Tripura. Presently its population is declining rapidly and it is now considered as an endangered fish species. So keeping the importance of this species in view, a study has been carried out to unfold its proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat and ash and muscle pH. During bioenergetics study it was observed that the fish feeds more in summer season. Microbiology study of fish showed that the fish is in acceptable condition.

Keywords Nandus nandus, Proximate composition, bioenergitics, microbial profile.

Phytoaccumulation of Zinc by Scirpus mucronatus (L.) Palla ex Kerner


The bioaccumulation of Zinc (Zn) by Scirpus mucronatus, in Hoagland solution enriched with 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32 mg L-1 of Zn supplied as Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. The accumulation of Zinc in plant depending on time and concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS Perkin Elmer Model 3110). The results showed that under experimental conditions (pH- 6.0±1, T- 24±1, Photoperiod- 16h), S. mucronatus (L.) are able to accumulated considerably amount of Zn. Removal of the metals from the solution reached the maximum on the 8th day. The accumulation of Zn increased with the increasing concentration. The highest accumulation was observed in the root then by shoot tissues. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metal was found to be maximum on the 8th day exposure.

Keywords Scripus mucronatus, Zinc, phytoaccumulation, Bioconcentration (BCF).

Bioinformatics and its application


Biotechnology is progressing at a fast pace with a huge amount of data being continuously generated worldwide. This article discusses the sources, tools and uses of biotechnological data.

Keywords Biotechnology

Preliminary Screening and Compositional Analysis of Bacterial Biofilm from Hypogean Environments of Meghalaya, India


Hypogean environments comprising of caves and subterranean habitats have long been recognized as a nutrient-deficient environment. To overcome limitation, selfish competition for resources is replaced by cooperative and mutualistic microbial associations of which biofilm formation is a phenomenon. The hypogean habitats in the form of caves in Meghalaya are diverse and some are among the largest in Asia. These caves have so far not yet attracted much attention of geomicrobiologists. On a preliminary scale, two different caves were selected for study of bacterial biofilm at different distances from the cave entrance. A total of 18 different morphotypes of bacteria were obtained from Mawsmai cave and 8 from Mawmluh cave. Moreover, as extracellular substrates can be converted into exopolysachharide of biofilm bacteria by secreted enzymes, e.g., glucansucrase (which have applications in various industries like pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, agricultural, photography and mining), we also attempted to screen the most potential glucansucrase producing bacterium from the isolates.

Keywords Bacteria, biofilm, cave, glucansucrase.

Cosmological Principle And Large Scale Structure Of The Universe


Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole. Matter in the universe is found to be distributed in agglomerations of stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Cosmology treats this distribution as a fine structure, which is ignored in the zeroth approximation, and the universe is described in the continumm approximation, i.e., via a cosmological fluid. The cosmological fluid has the property of being isotropic and homogenous ; in other words, of being isotropic and homogenous about every spatial point. This means that on a sufficiently large scale, there is no privileged direction or a privileged location in the universe. The hypothesis that the universe is homogenous and isotropic is known as the ‘Cosmological Principle’ and is the working assumption in designing a mathematical model of the universe. A comprehensive discussion is presented in this paper as to how such models may be designed on the basis of these simplying assumptions.

Keywords Cosmology, Cosmological Principle, Homogeneity, Isotropy.

Characterization of a hypothetical protein of Homo sapiens GI: 2135416 – An insilico approach


The complete human genome sequences provide a way to understand the blue print of life. With its completion, large-scale information has been generated both in terms of genes and proteins. Characterization of both genes and proteins is important for determining the regulatory mechanisms and functions. Thus, characterization of a hypothetical protein is performed to aid in the determination of the protein function. The hypothetical protein characterization showed a 40% homology to another human hypothetical protein whose function is yet to be determined but the sequence indicate a high level of conservation and stability of the protein structure. Further research involving development of appropriate strategies will provide new avenues in the field of medicine and research.

Keywords Homo sapiens, hypothetical protein